FREE Chapter 03: The Influence of Contemporary Trends and Issues on Nursing Education

Chapter 03: The Influence of Contemporary Trends and Issues on Nursing Education

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A current trend is for students to be evaluated to determine whether they demonstrate competence in the actual client care environment or with a standardized patient. This process occurs in addition to or instead of traditional pencil-and-paper evaluations. This type of evaluation is referred to as:

a.

core practice competencies.

b.

continuing competence.

c.

distance learning.

d.

performance-based assessment.

ANS: D

Correct: Performance-based assessment is the evaluation of abilities based on an objective demonstration of specific required competencies. This may include performance in actual or simulated situations.

Incorrect:

a. Core practice competencies consist of the abilities and skills currently required for program completion and nursing practice.

b. Continuing competence is required in many states for relicensure and recertification.

c. Distant learning occurs when courses are delivered through some electronic format such as a web-based course. The course may be presented a great distance from the student, who is never required to attend a class at a physical location.

DIF: Knowledge REF: p. 43

2. One of the major trends that currently influences nursing education and practice is:

a.

increased technology in the field of critical care.

b.

a narrowing scope of practice for nurses.

c.

incivility or disregard of others’ rights in social interactions.

d.

a decrease in ethnicity due to international programs allowing students to study from a distance.

ANS: C

Correct: Incivility has escalated with the use of text-messaging during class and academic dishonesty.

Incorrect:

a. Critical care is not the only area in which technology is increasing and does not have a major influence on nursing education.

b. The scope of practice is becoming broader, including community and global settings.

d. The number of diverse ethnic minorities and illegal immigrants is increasing.

DIF: Application REF: p. 45

3. Although the use of technology and the Internet provides nursing faculty and students with unlimited resources and current information, an outcome associated with this trend is that:

a.

users of electronic resources spend a disproportionate amount of time looking for pertinent content.

b.

additional time is available to study and revise curricula because special skills are not needed to access information via the Internet.

c.

immediate results and outcomes are expected from students and faculty, thus enhancing time management.

d.

skills that require problem solving and reflective abilities are developed.

ANS: A

Correct: Students can easily become distracted by pursuit of the intriguing web of links they encounter while they search websites to complete assignments or find pertinent content.

Incorrect:

b. Students must learn to become computer literate and competent. Success in nursing courses and practice depends on these skills.

c. With unlimited information available to them, students may actually take more time to navigate web-based resources than is needed for review of traditional print-based resources.

d. Learning from the Internet helps students develop skills in analytic thinking, decision making, and reflective judgment.

DIF: Analysis REF: pp. 38-39

4. A new trend in nursing education that is consistent with real-world practice is focused on:

a.

outcomes.

b.

objectives.

c.

goals.

d.

subjective appraisals.

ANS: A

Correct: Outcomes and criteria establish real expectations for clinical practice and have a powerful influence on nursing education and practice at all levels. Outcomes are used in all areas of nursing in the nursing process.

Incorrect:

b. Objectives refer to knowledge that the student is expected to attain.

c. Goals are client focused.

d. Subjective appraisals are not used in real-world practice.

DIF: Knowledge REF: p. 43

5. The practice of nurses, nursing students, and faculty is affected by demographic changes due to:

a.

the growing percentage of adults ages 50 to 55 years.

b.

increasing numbers of obese children and adults.

c.

changes by which families are becoming more nuclear.

d.

social programs that are essentially eliminating poverty.

ANS: B

Correct: The United States is experiencing an epidemic of obesity with major consequences for health and the health care system.

a. The percentage of adults ages 50 to 65 years is not increasing. The number of very old adults is increasing.

c. Even the definition of family has changed radically, as evidenced by single individuals living with other single individuals, single-parent households, and same-sex couples (with and without children).

d. The number of families who remain uninsured, jobless, homeless, and surviving in poverty is increasing.

DIF: Knowledge REF: p. 45

6. The first university to offer nursing graduates a baccalaureate degree was:

a.

Columbia Teachers College.

b.

Yale University.

c.

Harvard University.

d.

the New York Regents Program.

ANS: B

Correct: In 1924, Yale University offered the first separate Department of Nursing, whose graduates earned a baccalaureate degree.

Incorrect:

a. Columbia Teachers College was the first to offer a doctor of education degree.

c. Harvard University does not offer a baccalaureate program in nursing.

d. The New York Regents Program is a distance mobility program.

DIF: Knowledge REF: p. 52

7. Which nursing model is referred to as the “class without walls”?

a.

Articulation

b.

Career ladder (2 + 2)

c.

External degree

d.

Second degree

ANS: C

Correct: An external degree does not require attendance and provides no course classes; it enrolls thousands and is accessible regardless of geographic location.

Incorrect:

a. Articulation is the format of a program, or refers to what the student must do to complete the program.

b. The 2 + 2 option is for LPN or RN students to continue their education to RN or BSN, respectively.

d. A second degree is a degree that is pursued after the first degree has been obtained.

DIF: Knowledge REF: p. 54

8. In preparing students for professional nursing practice in the twenty-first century, where should the emphasis be placed?

a.

Care coordination, direct care for complex clients, and outcomes evaluation

b.

Chemistry, biostatistics, and computer programming

c.

Illness care, hospice, and ethics

d.

Psychomotor skills, obstetrics, and epidemiology

ANS: A

Correct: Caring for complexities in practice, coordinating care, and focusing on outcomes evaluation are the tasks that reflect the direction in which nursing is heading.

Incorrect:

b. As supplemental courses to nursing, these are essential, but they do not represent an area of emphasis for professional nursing.

c. Illness care, hospice, and ethics are currently components of programs that are preparing students for professional nursing.

d. Psychomotor skills, obstetrics, and epidemiology are limited in scope.

DIF:ApplicationREF:p. 43 | p. 53 | p. 56

9. A standardized means of determining initial proficiency at the entry level into nursing is:

a.

certification in medical-surgical nursing.

b.

the National Certification Licensure Examination (NCLEX®).

c.

comprehensive instructor-constructed examinations.

d.

the ability of the student to answer questions concerning the care provided to a patient during the senior nursing courses.

ANS: B

Correct: NCLEX® is the national licensure examination that is based on the minimal level of safety required for a nurse to enter practice.

Incorrect:

a. Certification in medical-surgical nursing is attained through a specialty examination for AACN certification that can be taken only by registered nurses.

c. Instructor-constructed examinations are based on instructors’ knowledge and experience and are not used for entry into practice.

d. The ability of the student to answer questions related to the care provided to a patient during the senior nursing courses describes a nonstandardized means of determining initial proficiency.

DIF: Knowledge REF: p. 52

10. Which trend is an effect of the nursing shortage on nursing education?

a.

Only devoted qualified nurses are continuing to provide bedside nursing because of the complexity of care required, resulting in excellent preceptorships for students.

b.

The number of applicants to nursing programs has risen, but enrollment is limited because of a decrease in the number of available scholarships and grants.

c.

With an increase in the number of nurses who are entering graduate school to escape bedside nursing, students will soon enjoy a lower faculty/student ratio.

d.

Students may be assigned to preceptors who have not yet developed expertise in the field of interest.

ANS: D

Correct: Qualified preceptors are few.

Incorrect:

a. There is a shortage of nurses qualified at the bedside who are available to serve as preceptors for students.

b. Nursing enrollments are limited because of a shortage of faculty.

c. Nurses are not entering graduate school to escape bedside nursing but to pursue advanced practice degrees.

DIF: Analysis REF: pp. 48-49

11. The NCLEX® examination is created and administered by the:

a.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN).

b.

American Nurses Association (ANA).

c.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN).

d.

National League for Nursing (NLN).

ANS: C

Correct: The NCSBN coordinates licensure activities on a national level and creates and administers the licensure examination (NCLEX®).

Incorrect:

a. The AACN is an organization of deans and directors of baccalaureate and higher degree nursing programs that establishes standards for programs and is concerned with legislative issues that pertain to professional nursing education.

b. The ANA is the major national nursing organization concerned with broad scope practice issues, standards of practice, scope of practice, ethics, legal issues, and employment; it consists of a federation of state nurse associations.

d. The NLN is a national organization of nurse educators that has a long-standing commitment to four types of basic programs: LPN, diploma, ADN, and BSN.

DIF:KnowledgeREF:p. 55; Box 3-1

12. A potential nursing student is visiting the website of some nursing programs and notes that the school states, “The curriculum is built on the Essentials of Baccalaureate Education to ensure that this nursing program meets the standards set for educating nurses at the baccalaureate level.” Which organization oversees professional nursing programs and establishes these essentials?

a.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN)

b.

American Nurses Association (ANA)

c.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN)

d.

National League for Nursing (NLN)

ANS: A

Correct: The AACN publishes the Journal of Professional Nursing, The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education, and other related documents pertaining to the BSN and higher degree education.

Incorrect:

b. The ANA is a major national organization that is concerned with a broad scope of practice issues.

c. The NCSBN is the organization of all state boards of nursing that coordinates licensure activities at the national level.

d. The NLN is the national organization of nurse educators that has a long-standing commitment to four types of basic programs: LPN, diploma, ADN, and BSN.

DIF:KnowledgeREF:p. 40; Box 3-2 | p. 45

13. A student is planning to enroll in prerequisite courses after graduating from high school and is researching options for nursing programs. During a career fair the student compares different types of nursing education programs and discovers that:

a.

diploma programs focus on family and community, with an emphasis on health promotion.

b.

most practicing RNs graduated from diploma programs because this was the first type of RN program.

c.

baccalaureate programs focus on technical and hands-on nursing skills in diverse community settings.

d.

master’s programs such as that for the clinical nurse leader provide entry into practice with a focus on interdisciplinary and bedside nursing care for complex client populations.

ANS: D

Correct: A clinical nurse leader oversees the care coordination of groups of clients and actively provides direct client care in complex situations, evaluates client outcomes, and has the decision-making authority to change care plans when necessary.

Incorrect:

a. Diploma programs do not focus on community, with an emphasis on health promotion, although baccalaureate programs do have this focus.

b. Most of today’s practicing RNs graduated from ADN programs.

c. BSN programs focus on the care of clients, with greater emphasis on the family and community and on health promotion and illness prevention.

DIF: Application REF: p. 53

14. When preparing to complete a competency exam involving a neurologic assessment in a simulation laboratory, the nurse reviews the critical elements, which consist of:

a.

those steps that result in life or death of a client.

b.

required criteria that must be incorporated into the assessment for the desired outcome.

c.

fundamental strategies unique to complex dynamic care environments.

d.

objective data that can be used to determine the likelihood that the client will recover.

ANS: B

Correct: Critical elements include the application of mandatory principles that must be used according to established practice standards.

Incorrect:

a. Critical elements work to achieve desired outcomes for the client.

c. Critical elements are not strategies.

d. Critical elements are based on the application of mandatory principles, not on objective data, to determine the likelihood that the client will recover.

DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 39

15. An RN with a diploma preparation wants to participate in decisions about health care and decides the first step is to obtain a BSN. The nurse enrolls in a nursing program offering self-scheduling and a self-paced curriculum. This nurse is taking advantage of:

a.

educational mobility.

b.

a traditional nursing program.

c.

training for advanced practice nursing.

d.

credit by examination.

ANS: A

Correct: Education mobility is the progressive movement from one level or type of education to another—in this instance, diploma to BSN. Programs are aimed to make the transition possible through creative flexible scheduling.

Incorrect:

b. Traditional nursing programs have set schedules, often face-to-face lectures offered in a full-time format; although some programs are web-assisted, the majority require the student to be on campus for most learning experiences.

c. A BSN is not an advanced practice degree.

d. Although credit by examination may be a part of a nontraditional nursing program, it is only a portion and does not characterize the type of learning.

DIF: Application REF: p. 35

16. A nursing student scores 95% on the written examination for the adult health course. To be successful in this course, this same student must then perform an indwelling catheter insertion and wound care in a simulated environment meeting core competencies. The student asks, “What are core competencies?” The nursing instructor replies, “Core competencies are:

a.

a trend used in nursing education to reduce attrition in prelicensure students.”

b.

those skills necessary for safe, competent nursing practice.”

c.

educational opportunities that provide remediation when student is unable to perform psychomotor skills correctly.”

d.

critical thinking exercises aimed to improve reading and math skills.”

ANS: B

Correct: Core competencies are those skills and elements that are fundamental and essential for safe, competent practice.

Incorrect:

a. The aim is not to reduce attrition but to ensure students have skills needed to provide safe care in today’s dynamic health care environment.

c. Critical elements are the components of any skill required to produce safe, competent care.

d. The aim is not to improve reading and math skills but rather to enhance critical thinking related to the practice of nursing.

DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 35

17. A nurse realizes that a health care concern related to globalization was:

a.

the emergence of epidemic hepatitis A.

b.

the pandemic of H1N1 “swine flu.”

c.

reemergence of polio.

d.

an increase in chronic illnesses.

ANS: B

Correct: In 2009, there was a pandemic of H1N1 on every continent and a reemergence of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Incorrect:

a. Hepatitis A is not related to globalization; rather the most common cause is lack of simple hand washing.

c. Polio has been almost nonexistent in the United States since the 1960s.

d. Globalization does not affect chronic illness.

DIF: Knowledge REF: p. 46

18. A student nurse is preparing a presentation that requires identification of outcomes for the care of heart failure patients. Which is a correctly written outcome?

a.

Develop a teaching program to address physical activities that improve cardiac function.

b.

Consider the clinical manifestations associated with Level 4 heart failure.

c.

List the most common pharmaceutical approaches to reduce preload in heart failure patients.

d.

Consider the economic impact that recidivism has on the patient and health care facility.

ANS: A

Correct: Outcomes use action words, actions that nurses actually do, such as develop, plan, implement, integrate, plan, or conduct. Objectives begin with words like describe, discuss, list, or recognize; they are directions for learning, not what nurses do.

DIF: Application REF: p. 39

19. A member of a nursing students study group comments, “I wish our instructor would just tell us the important information that we will be tested on in our course and on NCLEX®. Instead, we spend some time early in the class discussing key facts then the most of the time working through case studies, then practicing on the simulator rather than caring for ‘real’ patients.” This teaching-learning style represents:

a.

memorization of basic facts presented early in the lecture.

b.

Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE).

c.

peer-to-peer learning.

d.

practice-based competency.

ANS: D

Correct: Practice-bases competency includes active engagement and application in real practice situations and interactive strategies such as case studies and simulation.

Incorrect:

a. Lectures and readings are passive and promote memorization.

b. Objective Structured Clinical Exams are examinations or assessment measures rather than a teaching-learning style.

c. Peer-to-peer learning involves peer teaching to helps students at risk.

DIF:ApplicationREF:p. 37; Table 3-1

20. The Southern Poverty Law Center would be consulted in which situation?

a.

An elderly patient can’t afford needed medications because his adult child uses the money for gambling.

b.

A group of immigrants are paid half the wages as the citizens of the country receive.

c.

Single mothers living below poverty level sell their government-subsidized food to purchase items such as make-up and gasoline for their cars.

d.

A gang of teenagers target students who participate in alternate lifestyle choices.

ANS: D

Correct: The Southern Poverty Law Center is a national organization that promotes tolerance in schools and monitors militant hate groups and initiates law suits against violent offenders.

Incorrect:

a. Social workers or agencies such as the National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA) would be involved in representing the needs of this vulnerable population.

b. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission would be contacted when unfair wages are paid to minorities or disadvantaged groups.

c. The Southern Poverty Law Center focuses on hate groups and does not intervene in poverty issues or concerns. Social workers would be involved with the needs of this vulnerable group.

DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 45

21. A person interested in employment in the health care sector has less than 1 year to pursue his/her education and wants to focus on functional aspects of patient care. He/She desires to work in a long-term facility. Which type of nursing program should this person request information about?

a.

Bachelor’s degree in nursing (BSN)

b.

Licensed practical nurse (LPN)

c.

Associate degree in nursing

d.

Master’s degree in nursing

ANS: B

Correct: LPN programs provide basic technical bedside care and employment opportunities at hospitals, nursing homes, home care, and doctor offices.

Incorrect:

a. BSN programs require 2 to 4 years of study unless accelerated and focus on broad areas of care such as community, public health, home health, and acute care.

c. Associate degrees are 2-year degree nursing program in community colleges, with required college courses in arts and sciences and a more integrated approach to nursing content and clinical learning.

d. MSN programs usually require a BSN to enter, and practice includes education, community, and public health.

DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 50; Table 3-3 | p. 51

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. A nurse is concerned that the policy of using povidone-iodine (Betadine) to clean foot ulcers may lead to unwarranted allergic reactions and drying of surrounding tissue. A literature review is performed to determine the “best practice” related to care of foot ulcers. This nurse: (Select all that apply.)

a.

is applying evidence-based practice to the clinical setting.

b.

is using critical thinking to change procedures performed in the care of foot ulcers.

c.

is minimally educated at the master’s level and participating in research to provide cost-effective care (soap is less expensive than povidone-iodine).

d.

lacks clinical competence in health assessment and in application of theory to the clinical setting.

e.

is using information to problem-solve and ensure safe, competent care.

ANS: A, B, E

Correct: Critical thinking is an essential part of applying evidence-based practice—that is using research findings to guide actual practice.

Incorrect:

c. Evidence-based research, not cost, should be used to guide actual practice.

d. The nurse is demonstrating clinical competence by using assessment skills and by noting the effects of povidone-iodine and applying evidence-based practice to change procedures performed in the care of foot ulcers.

DIF: Analysis REF: p. 36

COMPLETION

1. The oldest, most traditional type of program that prepares a candidate for RN licensure is the hospital-based _________ program.

ANS:

diploma

The earliest training programs for nurses were hospital based and designed to meet the needs of the particular institution; these were referred to as diploma programs.

DIF: Knowledge REF: p. 51

2. According to Lenburg, the use of practice-based assessments in nursing education is aimed toward the target of __________.

ANS:

competence

The target that students need to meet to practice safely in today’s complex health environment is achieving critical competencies and demonstrating of practice-based skills.

DIF: Comprehension REF: p. 39