Free Chapter 03: Mentorship, Preceptorship, and Nurse Residency Programs

Chapter 03: Mentorship, Preceptorship, and Nurse Residency Programs

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse manager is presenting at a conference and shows an adequate understanding of a mentoring relationship when giving the following as an example:

a.

A coach and a player

c.

An intern and a resident

b.

A teacher and a learner

d.

An advisor and a partner

ANS: D

In nursing, mentor is synonymous with trusted advisor, and mentoring is a partnership between two people. Coaches help individuals find new ways to solve problems, reach goals, and design plans of action to motivate people to perform at the “top of their game.” The teacher and learner relationship involves an evaluation component (receiving a grade in a course). The intern reports to the resident, so there is more of a precepting relationship because the resident is the clinical expert, and there may also be an evaluation component in this relationship.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 50-51

OBJ: Describe the difference between mentoring, coaching, and precepting.

TOP: Mentoring relationship MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

2. The nurse professor is lecturing to students in their final semester of nursing school. Which statement by the nurse professor about mentoring is accurate?

a.

“Mentoring involves solving an individual’s problems.”

b.

“Mentoring focuses on the needs of someone else.”

c.

“Mentoring means helping someone reach his or her long-term goals.”

d.

“Mentoring requires pairing an experienced person with a novice.”

ANS: B

Mentoring requires a primary focus on the needs of the mentee and an effort to fulfill the most critical of these needs. Meeting these needs first makes achievement of goals more realistic. Mentoring does not involve solving an individual’s problems, helping someone reach long-term goals, or pairing an experienced person with a novice.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 51

OBJ: Identify characteristics of effective mentors, mentees, and preceptors.

TOP: Description of mentoring MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

3. While discussing a mentoring program with the nursing director, the nurse manager correctly states that mentoring is a

a.

partnership.

c.

static relationship.

b.

one-way street.

d.

method of gaining more experience.

ANS: A

Mentoring is a partnership and a two-way street with both parties freely contributing to the relationship as equals working together, based on mutual respect. Mentoring is not used as a method to gain more experience. Mentoring is a dynamic, not a static, relationship. Gaining experience is often associated with precepting.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 51

OBJ: Identify characteristics of effective mentors, mentees, and preceptors.

TOP: Description of mentoring MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

4. You are a graduate nurse in search of a mentor. To find a good “match,” what should you look for?

a.

Choose an experienced nurse who is successful.

b.

Look for things you and the potential mentor have in common.

c.

Be very specific with the questions you ask of the possible mentor.

d.

Be careful not to disclose too much personal information.

ANS: B

When considering establishing a mentoring relationship, look for commonalities in nursing education, areas of expertise or practice, or interests. Feeling comfortable and building trust are crucial for a successful mentoring relationship. Broad, open-ended questions stimulate discussion and offer an opportunity to assess and establish the mentor relationship. It is important to discuss yourself and be open in a light and friendly manner when talking with a potential mentor. Being an experienced nurse would be an important criterion for a preceptor.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 57-58

OBJ: Identify characteristics of effective mentors, mentees, and preceptors.

TOP: Effective mentoring relationship MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

5. A group of nursing students is discussing mentors. One of the students correctly states a characteristic of a successful mentor when stating:

a.

“They ensure that their mentees do not fail.”

b.

“They push the mentees to a higher level.”

c.

“They always ask a lot of questions of their mentees.”

d.

“They encourage mentees to question their skills so they can improve.”

ANS: B

Mentors need to communicate high expectations to mentees and push them to meet or exceed these expectations. Mentors should not ensure that mentees do no fail because this is often a great learning experience for mentees. Frequently questioning mentees or encouraging mentees to question their skills is not indicative of a successful mentor. Mentors are good listeners, offer empathy and encouragement, and are generous with their time and knowledge.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 57-58

OBJ: Identify characteristics of effective mentors, mentees, and preceptors.

TOP: Successful mentorship MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

6. The role of the mentee needs to be understood early in the mentoring relationship. What is a characteristic or example of the mentee’s role?

a.

Not interrupting the mentor

b.

Absorbing what the mentor explains in detail

c.

Establishing personal short- and long-term goals

d.

Finding out what the mentor has to offer in terms of experience

ANS: C

Establishing your goals early will help you get exactly what you need from the mentoring relationship. The mentee should ask questions when clarification is needed because communication is very important. The mentor’s nursing experience is not considered part of the mentee’s role. Absorbing information may relate more to a preceptor providing information on content or skills. Finding out the experience is probably more applicable to the preceptor relationship.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 56

OBJ: Identify characteristics of effective mentors, mentees, and preceptors.

TOP:Role of mentee

MSC: NCLEX®: Safe and effective care environment—management of care

7. Which statement indicates the student nurse’s understanding of a situational relationship?

a.

“A situational relationship occurs only one time.”

b.

“A situation relationship is established by the organization.”

c.

“In a situational relationship, both mentee and mentor mutually accept it.”

d.

“A situational relationship is structured to ensure situational success.”

ANS: A

Characteristically, a situational mentoring relationship is a one-time event. Organizations usually establish formal relationships. Acceptance by the mentee and mentor is characteristic of an informal relationship. A structured relationship is formal.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 60

OBJ:Discuss the types of mentoring relationships.

TOP: Situational mentoring relationship MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

8. The “honeymoon” is a specific phase of reality shock. What should the mentor do during this phase?

a.

Share personal transition experiences with the mentee.

b.

Reinforce the need for the mentee to problem solve.

c.

Encourage the mentee to try new things.

d.

Act as the intermediary for the mentee with all staff members.

ANS: D

During the “honeymoon” phase, the mentor should be supportive (by listening and understanding), act as an intermediary with other staff members, and be a role model. Sharing feelings and experiences and the mentor’s own transition experience are appropriate in the shock and rejection phase. Trying new things and stepping outside the mentee’s comfort zone would be appropriate for the mentor to encourage during the recovery phase of reality shock.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 61

OBJ:Discuss the types of mentoring relationships.

TOP:Mentoring during reality shock phase

MSC: NCLEX®: Safe and effective care environment—management of care

9. A new graduate is looking for a mentor. Which staff nurse would be the best choice?

a.

Louise, a skilled clinician who appears hurried, curt, and occasionally sarcastic

b.

Jill, a new graduate who worked 2 years as an LPN and seems confident

c.

Juan, who has 3 years of experience, good skills, and a sense of humor

d.

Kim, who has 6 years of experience and is highly intellectual but is aloof and self-centered

ANS: C

The mentor not only serves as a role model or counselor for the new graduate but also actively advises, guides, and promotes the graduate’s career. It is important to select someone who will work with you and has nursing experience as a nurse. Frequently, nurses with 3 to 5 years of experience remember their own role transition and can relate to what the new graduate is experiencing. Louise is curt and sarcastic, which would not be supportive behavior of a mentor. Jill is too recent a graduate. Kim is aloof and self-centered and would not be a good candidate for a mentor because mentors willingly are personally invested in their mentee.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Evaluation REF: pp. 57-58

OBJ: Describe four possible resolutions for reality shock. TOP: Selecting a mentor

MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

10. Which of the following statements by the nurse indicates an understanding of mentors?

a.

“Mentors focus on fostering the mentee’s individual growth and development over an extended period of time.”

b.

“Mentors develop nurturing relationships during work time.”

c.

“Mentoring is the approach of assisting an individual’s growth through partnership.”

d.

“The strength of mentoring lies in the facilitation and development of personal qualities.”

ANS: A

Mentoring involves focus on fostering the mentee’s individual growth and development over an extended period of time. Mentors develop nurturing relationships during personal time. Coaching is the approach of assisting an individual’s growth through partnership. The strength of mentoring lies in the mentor’s specific knowledge and wisdom.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 50

OBJ: Describe the difference between mentoring, coaching, and precepting.

TOP: What mentoring is and is not MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

11. A nursing student is in the mentoring process. Which action would occur if the student nurse were in the “follow” phase?

a.

The nursing student observes as the mentor places a urinary catheter.

b.

The nursing student places a urinary catheter while the mentor stands nearby for guidance.

c.

The nursing student reads the hospital policy regarding urinary catheter placement.

d.

The nursing student places the urinary catheter without guidance from the mentor.

ANS: B

In the “follow” phase, the student nurse and the mentor walk side by side down the same path, and the mentor assumes a more passive role. Therefore, the student would place the urinary catheter, with the mentor nearby for guidance. In the “lead” phase, the student would observe the mentor; in the “get out of the way” phase, the student nurse would place the urinary catheter without guidance. Reading the hospital policy on urinary catheterization does not indicate a phase of the mentoring process.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 56

OBJ:Examine components of a nurse residency program.

TOP: What is a nurse residency program? MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

12. A nursing student is in the mentoring process. Which action would occur if the nursing student were in the “Get out of the way phase?”

a.

The nursing student would assess chest tubes with the mentor nearby for guidance.

b.

The nursing student would assess chest tubes independently.

c.

The nursing student would observe the mentor assessing chest tubes.

d.

The nursing student would read the hospital policy on chest tubes.

ANS: B

In the “get out of the way” phase, the nursing student would assess chest tubes independently. In the “follow” phase, the nursing student would observe the mentor assessing chest tubes. In the “lead” phase, the nursing student would assess chest tubes with the mentor nearby for guidance. Reading hospital policy on chest tubes does not indicate a phase in the mentoring process.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 56

OBJ:Examine components of a nurse residency program.

TOP: What is a nurse residency program? MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

13. A nursing student is meeting with a possible mentor for the last semester of nursing school. Which of the following questions would be most appropriate for the student to ask?

a.

“Do you like working on this unit?”

b.

“Do you like your coworkers?”

c.

“How are things going today?”

d.

“What kind of problems are you having?”

ANS: C

The nursing student should ask open-ended questions, such as, “How are things going today?” The questions “Do you like working on this unit?,” “Do you like your coworkers?,” and “What kind of problems are you having” are direct questions. Open-ended questions stimulate discussion and are less likely to make the other person feel vulnerable.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 57-58

OBJ: Implement strategies to find a mentor. TOP: How to find a mentor

MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

14. Which statement by the nursing student best describes the characteristics of a mentee?

a.

“The mentee should be passive and observe only.”

b.

“The mentee should challenge constructive feedback.”

c.

“The mentee should communicate clearly.”

d.

“The mentee should let learning opportunities come to him or /her.”

ANS: C

The mentee should always strive to communicate clearly with the mentor. Being passive, challenging constructive feedback, and not seeking out learning opportunities are not characteristics of a mentee.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 60

OBJ:Discuss the types of mentoring relationships.

TOP: What are the characteristics of a mentee? MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

15. Which action by the mentor can help reduce the impact of reality shock on the mentee during the honeymoon phase?

a.

Listen as the mentee discusses the excitement of starting a new position as a nurse.

b.

Avoid discussions about the excitement of the mentee’s new position as a nurse.

c.

Ask the mentee not to discuss the new position during work hours.

d.

Tell the mentee that the excited will not last long.

ANS: A

To help reduce the impact of reality shock, the mentor can listen as the mentee discusses the excitement of starting a new position as a nurse. Avoiding discussions about the new position or telling the mentee that the excitement will not last long are not ways to help reduce the impact of reality shock.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 61

OBJ:Discuss the types of mentoring relationships.

TOP: Mentoring through reality shock MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

16. What action can the mentor take to help reduce the impact of reality shock on the mentee during the shock or rejection phase?

a.

Withhold personal transition stories.

b.

Encourage the mentee to discuss his or her feelings.

c.

Encourage mentees to keep their feelings to themselves during work hours.

d.

Ignore the feelings caused by reality shock.

ANS: B

During the shock or rejection phase, the mentor can encourage the mentee to discuss his or her feelings to decrease the impact of reality shock. Withholding their own personal transitions stories, encouraging the mentee to keep their feelings to themselves, or ignoring these feelings are not ways that the mentor can help the mentee through this time of transition.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 61

OBJ:Discuss the types of mentoring relationships.

TOP: Mentoring through reality shock MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

17. Which action by the mentor can help reduce the impact of reality shock on the mentee during the recovery phase?

a.

Encourage the mentee to perform skills that he or she is comfortable with.

b.

Maintain a semi-open line of communication.

c.

Encourage the mentee to try new skills.

d.

Allow the mentee to work independently.

ANS: C

During the recovery phase, the mentor should encourage the mentee to step outside of his or her comfort zone. This can be best achieved by encouraging the mentee to try new skills. The mentee should maintain an open line of communication while working with the mentee.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 62

OBJ:Discuss the types of mentoring relationships.

TOP: Mentoring through reality shock MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

18. Which action by the mentor can help reduce the impact of reality shock on the mentee during the resolution phase?

a.

Expect the mentee to problem solve clinical issues independently.

b.

Continue to practicing skills that he or she is comfortable with.

c.

Reinforce positive qualities that the mentee possesses.

d.

Point out negative qualities for the mentee to change.

ANS: C

The role of the mentor during the resolution phase is to remain supportive to the mentee. Pointing out positive qualities that the mentee possess is one way to achieve this. Expecting the mentee to problem solve independently and pointing out negative characteristics will not assist in the resolution of reality shock.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: p. 62

OBJ:Discuss the types of mentoring relationships.

TOP: Mentoring through reality shock MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

1. Review the following characteristics. Which best describe the role of the mentor? (Select all that apply.)

a.

Requires a primary focus on the needs of the new nurse

b.

Assists the new nurse with difficult nursing procedures

c.

Serves as a primary resource on the nursing unit for the new nurse

d.

Is assigned to the new nurse for the orientation period

e.

Is interested in the new nurse’s personal growth and nursing goals

f.

Is available to the new nurse after hours to discuss problems and needs

ANS: A, E, F

A mentor is more interested in a nurturing role and focuses on the needs of the new nurse and frequently shares personal time. The preceptor acts in a formal role and functions during a defined period of time. The primary focus of the preceptor is to serve as a role model during the specified period. The other options (assists the new nurse with difficult nursing procedures, serves as a primary resource on the nursing unit, and is assigned to the new nurse for the orientation period) are characteristic of a preceptor.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 59

OBJ: Describe the difference between mentoring, coaching, and precepting.

TOP: Characteristics of a mentor MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

2. A nurse manager and a nurse director are discussing e-mentoring. Which statements by the nurse director indicate an understanding of the components of e-mentoring? (Select all that apply.)

a.

“E-mentoring involves distance mentoring.”

b.

“E-mentoring is done through instant messaging.”

c.

“E-mentoring involves contact between mentee and mentor via electronic mail.”

d.

“E-mentoring is a mentoring program for first-year nursing students.”

e.

“E-mentoring uses a videoconferencing system such as Skype to meet virtually.”

f.

“E-mentoring involves planning a meeting at a coffee shop to discuss progress of the preceptorship.”

ANS: A, B, C, E

According to Knight, e-mentoring reflects mentoring that takes place over a distance (learner and faculty are not in face-to-face communication), usually by electronic communication facilitation. More recently, the use of e-mentoring can be via e-mail, smartphone, Skype, and webinars. Meeting in person (coffee shop) and the mentoring program do not describe the virtual component of e-mentoring.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 62

OBJ: Discuss the types of mentoring relationships. TOP: E-mentoring

MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

3. A group of nursing students are discussing characteristics of a successful mentor. Which of the following statements identify these characteristics? (Select all that apply.)

a.

“Successful mentors are passive.”

b.

“Successful mentors communicate high expectations.”

c.

“Successful mentors are good listeners.”

d.

“Successful mentors show empathy.”

e.

“Successful mentors are nonjudgmental.”

ANS: B, C, D, E

Successful mentors communicate high expectations, are good listeners, show empathy, and are nonjudgmental. Successful mentors are not passive but are actively involved with the growth of the mentee.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: pp. 57-58

OBJ:Implement strategies to find a mentor.

TOP: What are the characteristics of a successful mentor? MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable

4. Which statement(s) by the nursing student best describes the attributes of a mentor? (Select all that apply.)

a.

“A mentor actively advises, supports and promotes the mentee’s career.”

b.

“A mentor is a professional who has any amount of experience as a nurse.”

c.

“Mentors have the mentee’s best interest at heart.”

d.

“Mentors bolster self-confidence.”

e.

“Mentors provide support for only a short period of time.”

ANS: A, C, D

A mentor is an experienced nurse who advises, supports, and promotes the mentees career. The mentor has the mentee’s best interest at heart and bolsters self-confidence.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 57-58

OBJ: Implement strategies to find a mentor. TOP: When do we need mentors?

MSC: NCLEX®: Not applicable